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Long Term Assets Financial Accounting

All intangible assets are not subject to amortization. Only recognized intangible assets with finite useful lives are amortized. The finite useful life of such an asset is considered to be the length of time it is expected to contribute to the cash flows of the reporting entity.

An asset is a resource that a company owns or exerts control over and is listed on the balance sheet. Current assets are listed at the top and plant assets are listed below current assets. By comparing an asset’s book value (cost less up-to-date accumulated depreciation) with its sales price, the company may show either a gain or a loss.

They use capital to buy more equipment, buildings, or materials, which they then use to make goods or provide services. A business’s capital assets can also include cash and investments. A plant asset is discarded when it is no longer useful to the company and it has no market value. Equals the asset’s cost, it is said to be fully depreciated . A company usually keeps records for each asset showing its cost and depreciation to date. The combined records for individual assets are a type of plant asset subsidiary ledger.

plant assets refer to nonphysical assets that are used in the operations of a business.

Recording any consideration received or paid or to be received or paid. Raw materials are commodities companies use in the primary production or manufacturing of goods. Investopedia requires writers to use primary sources to support their work.

Charges that will permanently add to the lands value. Including cost of removing the structure , less any amounts recovered through sale of salvage materials. Learn the definition of intangible assets and understand their different types.


This method charges the same amount of expense to each period of the asset’s useful life. First we compute the depreciable cost of asset, also called the cost to be depreciated. It is computed by subtracting the asset’s salvage value from its total cost.

Plant Assets are tangible assets used in a company’s operations that have a useful life of more than one accounting period. Gains or losses on sales of tangible plant assets are usually measured by the difference between the cash received and the net book value of the asset given up. Goodwill is recorded as an intangible asset on the balance sheet only when it is purchased as part of the acquisition cost of another company.

Inventory is also a current asset because it includes raw materials and finished goods that can be sold relatively quickly. Tangible assets are typically physical assets or property owned by a company, such as computer equipment. Tangible assets are the main type of assets that companies use to produce their product and service. Plant assets are long-lived assets because they are expected to last for more than one year. Long-lived assets consist of tangible assets and intangible assets.

Examples of PP&E include buildings, machinery, land, office equipment, furniture, and vehicles. Companies list their net PP&E on their financial statements. Examples are standing timber, mineral deposits, and oil and gas fields.

Research and development (R&D) costs Costs incurred in a planned search for new knowledge and in translating such knowledge into a new product or process. Patent A right granted by the federal government giving the owner the exclusive right to manufacture, sell, lease, or otherwise benefit from an invention for a limited period. Franchise A contract between two parties granting the franchisee certain rights and privileges ranging from name identification to complete monopoly of service. Copyright An exclusive right granted by the federal government giving protection against the illegal reproduction by others of the creator’s written works, designs, and literary productions.

It is reasonable to assume that a large portion of the unrecorded assets of Microsoft must be intangible. How does the accountant value something that has no physical substance and in many cases has not been recorded? It is similar to walking around in a dark closet wearing a blindfold. These represent Exxon’s long-term investments like oil rigs and production facilities that come under property, plant, and equipment (PP&E).

plant assets refer to nonphysical assets that are used in the operations of a business.

One simple expression of ROI is operating income divided by average assets. Assets such as cash and supplies have value because they can be used to acquire other assets or be used to operate a business. Grantor of the lease is the lessor; the party obtaining the rights to possess and use property is the lessee.


In many cases, intangible assets compose a significant majority of total assets. Thus, the earning power of such companies is primarily based on the valuation of assets that cannot be seen or touched. Some intangible assets, such as human assets and internally generated intangibles, are not even recorded on the company’s books. This makes it even more difficult to value the assets and determine their contribution to earnings.

Are nonphysical assets used in operations that give companies long term rights or competitive advantages?

Intangible assets are typically nonphysical assets used over the long term.

Second, depreciable cost is divided by the number of accounting periods in the asset’s useful life. When a plant asset is retired from service, the asset’s cost and accumulated depreciation must be removed from the plant asset accounts. Plant assets and natural resources are tangible assets used by a company to produce revenues. A company also may acquire intangible assets to assist in producing revenues. As we move ever more toward an information based economy, the percent of intangible assets to total assets also increases.

Disposal of plant assets

Examples of current assets include cash, marketable securities, cash equivalents, accounts receivable, and inventory. Examples of noncurrent assets include long-term investments, land, intellectual property and other intangibles, and property, plant, and equipment (PP&E). Similar to depreciation of plant asset and the depletion of NR in that it is a process of cost allocation. But only straight-line method is used for amortizing Int. Unless the company can show that another method is preferred.

  • This ratio is referred to as the price to book ratio .
  • Accelerated depreciation method yields larger depreciation expenses in the early years of an asset’s life and less depreciation in later years.
  • Look at Exhibit 18, a partial balance sheet for ANY company.
  • They are recorded as expenses and deducted from revenues in the current period’s income statement.
  • If not, accountants assume the cash price of the new asset is the fair market value of the old asset plus the cash paid.
  • Land Improvements such as parking lot surfaces, driveways, fences, shrubs, and lighting systems, however, have limited useful lives and are used up.

The effects of amortization are recorded in a contra account (accum. Amortization) The gross acquisition cost of Int. Involves removing its book value, recording any other asset received, and recognizing loss or gain. On the income statement, depreciation on the building appears as part of the cost of ore sold and is carried as part of inventory cost for ore not sold during the period. On the balance sheet, accumulated depreciation on the building appears with the related asset account. Process of allocating the cost of a plant asset to expense in the accounting period benefiting from its use.

What Are Examples of Current Assets and Noncurrent Assets?

Noncurrent assets are a company’s long-term investments for which the full value will not be realized within a year and are typically highly illiquid. A fixed asset is a long-term tangible asset that a firm owns and uses to produce income and is not expected to be used or sold within a year. Cash and equivalents may be used to pay a company’s short-term debt. Accounts receivable consist of the expected payments from customers to be collected within one year.

plant assets refer to nonphysical assets that are used in the operations of a business.

The conversion on NR requires machinery, equipment and buildings. If machine permanently installed and 10% of ore is mined and sold, then 10% of machine cost is allocated to depreciation expense. However, a machine will be moved to and used at another site when extraction is complete, machine depreciated over its own useful life.

However, computing an intangible asset’s acquisition cost differs from computing a plant asset’s acquisition cost. Firms may include only outright purchase costs in the acquisition cost of an intangible asset; the acquisition cost does not include cost of internal development or self-creation of the asset. If an intangible plant assets refer to nonphysical assets that are used in the operations of a business. asset is internally generated in its entirety, none of its costs are capitalized. Therefore, some companies have extremely valuable assets that may not even be recorded in their asset accounts. To explain the reasons for this practice, we discuss the history of accounting for research and development costs next.

Intangible assets

Total noncurrent assets for fiscal-year end 2021 were $279.7 billion. Current assets generally sit at the top of the balance sheet. Here, they include receivables due to Exxon, along with cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, and inventories. Total current assets for fiscal-year end 2021 were $59.2 billion. Current assets are most often valued at market prices whereas noncurrent assets are valued at cost less depreciation. Record depreciation up to the date of disposal-this also updates Accumulated Depreciation 2.

What is meant by plant in business?

a factory or building where goods are manufactured: The company opened its first European manufacturing plant in 1971.

Current refers to assets and liabilities that are present for less than one year (e.g., typically stock, trade receivables/liabilities). A Building Account is charged for the costs of purchasing or construction a building that is used in operations. When purchased, a building’s costs usually include its purchase price, brokerage fees, taxes, title fees, and attorney fees. Also includes all expenditures to ready it for its intended use, including any necessary repairs or renovations such as a wiring, lighting, flooring, and wall coverings.

This is the amount the owner expects to receive from disposing of the asset at the end of its benefit period. If the asset is expected to be traded in on a new asset, its salvage value is the expected trade-in value. The phrase Capital-Intensive Companies refers to companies with large amounts invested in plant assets. Obsolescence refers to the insufficient capacity of a company’s plant assets to meet the company’s growing productive demands. The sale of a plant asset may result in a gain but not a loss.

Current Assets is an account on a balance sheet that represents the value of all assets that could be converted into cash within one year. Financial statement are effected for several years by the accounting choice of recording costs as either revenue or capital expenditures. This decision is based on whether the expenditures are identifies as ordinary repairs or as betterment and extraordinary repairs. Depreciation is based on estimates of salvage value and useful life.

What are the non-operating expenses?

A non-operating expense is a cost from activities that aren't directly related to core, day-to-day company operations. Examples of non-operating expenses include interest payments and one-time expenses related to the disposal of assets or inventory write-downs.

This method is recommended where the physical life of the plant asset equals or exceeds the resource’s life but its useful life is limited to the life of the natural resource. Occasionally, a company continues to use a plant asset after it has been fully depreciated. In such a case, the firm should not remove the asset’s cost and accumulated depreciation from the accounts until the asset is sold, traded, or retired from service. Of course, the company cannot record more depreciation on a fully depreciated asset because total depreciation expense taken on an asset may not exceed its cost.